The Litunga And Lozi People of Barotseland

.

The Litunga of Barotseland (now in Zambia Western Province) is the king of the Barotse people. Barotse people does not refer to the Lozi speaking people alone but refers to the people that inhabit the territory called Barotseland which is in the Western Side of the country of Zambia previously referred to as North Eastern Rhodesia. The Litunga resides near the Zambezi River and the town of Mongu, at Lealui on the floodplain in the dry season, and on higher ground at Limulunga on the edge of the floodplain in the wet season. The Litunga moves between these locations in what is known as the Kuomboka ceremony. An event that has become a wide celebrated ceremony attracting not only locals but people from all over the world.
Despite the many ethnic groups that are found in Barotseland that comprises of several languages, Lozi is the trademark Language of the area.
Lozi people, or Barotse, are a southern African Bantu speaking ethnic group who speak Lozi or Silozi a Sotho-Tswana language. The Lozi people consist of a lot of different ethnic groups and are primarily situated in western Zambia, inhabiting the region of Barotseland.

Lozi is also a nationality of the people of Barotseland, an amalgamation of several smaller ethnic groups and tribes. The Lozi people number approximately 3,575,000. Lozi are also found in Zambia, Namibia (Caprivi Strip), Angola, Botswana, Mozambique (50,000), and Zimbabwe (8,000). The Lozi are also known as the Malozi, Nyambe, Makololo, Barotose, Rotse, Rozi, Rutse, or Tozvi.

The word Lozi means ‘plain’ in the Makololo language, in reference to the Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi on and around which most Lozi live. It may also be spelled Lotse or Rotse, the spelling Lozi having originated with German missionaries in what is now Namibia. Mu- and Ba- are corresponding singular and plural prefixes for certain nouns in the Silozi language, so Murotse means ‘person of the plain’ while Barotse means ‘people of the plain.

Lozi tradition states that they have always inhabited Barotseland. In about 1830, an army that originated in the Sotho-speaking Bafokeng region of South Africa, known as the Makololo, led by a warrior called Sebetwane, invaded Barotseland and conquered the Lozi. They ruled until 1864 when the Sotho clique was overthrown following a Lozi revolt.

The political organisation of the Lozi has long centred on a monarchy, whose reigning head, the Paramount King, is known as ‘Litunga’ which means ‘keeper of the earth.’ The renowned Litunga Lewanika, whose latter name was a nickname from the Mbunda meaning “unifier” following the Lozi revolt that overthrew the Sotho clique, reigned from 1878 to 1916 with a short insurrectionist break in 1884-85, requested Queen Victoria to bring Barotseland under protectorate status. Great Britain, however, was uninterested in acquiring the territory. A granting of a royal charter for the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes allowed the company to acquire Barotseland under the guise of the British government.  The siging of the the treaty was allegedly marred with trickery from both ends as the Litunga is also to allegedly have signed for territories and lands that were not in his domain. Although under protectorate status, Lewanika eventually realized that he had also been tricked and petitioned for the protectorate status to be corrected. Yet, the land including the land that was allegedly not his but was included in the treaty remained under Rhodes’s control, and when the territory failed to produce gold, copper or other exports, the “British South Africa Company defaulted on every commitment it had made to Lewanika,” and few developments in infrastructure and education were made.

Although Barotseland was incorporated into Northern Rhodesia, it retained a large degree of autonomy, which was carried over when Northern Rhodesia became Zambia on its independence in 1964. In the run-up to independence, the Litunga, the Ngambela (Prime Minister) and about a dozen senior indunas went to London for talks with the Colonial Office, in an attempt to have Barotseland remain a Protectorate. The Litunga, Sir Mwanawina Lewenika III, quoted his grandfather’s words to Queen Victoria, that “My country is your blanket, and my people are but the fleas in your blanket.” There remains some support in the region for greater autonomy within Zambia. It is clear that history does not clearly state where the Lozi people may have originally came from.
Lozi society is highly stratified, with a monarch at the top and those of recent royal descent occupying high positions in society. The monarch or Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE) is known as Mulonga, and Lozi society tolerates little criticism even of an unpopular Litunga.
Criticisms of a Litunga by a foreigner are treated as criticisms of the Lozi nation as a whole. The Lozi are not separate into clans, unlike most African ethnic groups.

Lozi culture is strongly influenced by the flood cycle of the Zambezi river, with annual migrations taking place from the flood plain to higher ground at the start of the wet season. The most important of these festivals is the Kuomboka, in which the Litunga moves from Lealui in the flood plain to Limulunga on higher ground. The Kuomboka usually takes place in February or March. These annual floods displace hundreds of people every year.

 

The current is Litunga is Lubosi II.

List of Litungas Rulers (title Mbumu wa Litunga)

Nyambe (god)[2]

Mwanasolundwi Muyunda Mumbo wa Mulonga (demigod)

Inyambo

Yeta I

Ngalama

Yeta II Nalute

Ngombala

Yubya

Mwanawina I

Mwananyanda Liwale (? – 1812)

Mulambwa Santulu (1812 – 1830)

Silumelume (1830) – Son of Mulambwa

Mubukwanu (1830 – 1838) – Son of Mulambwa

Imasiku (1838) – Son of Mubukwanu

Makololo chiefs (title Morêna)Edit

Sebetwane (1838 – 1851)

Mamochisane (female) (1851) – Daughter of Sebetwane

Sekeletu (1851 – 1863) – Son of Sebetwane and Setlutlu

Mambili (1863)

Liswaniso (in rebellion) (1863)

Mbololo (1863 – 1864) – Brother of Sebetwane

Rulers (title Mbumu wa Litunga)Edit

Sipopa Lutangu (1864 – 1876)[citation needed]

Mowa Mamili – Regent (1876)

Mwanawina II (1876 – 1878)

Lubosi I (1st time) (1878 – 1884)

Akufuna Tatila (1884 – 1885)

Sikufele (in rebellion) (1885)

Lubosi I (Lewanika I) (2nd time) (1885 – 1916)

Mokamba – Regent (1916)

Yeta III (1916 – 1945)

Shemakone Kalonga Wina -Regent (1st time) (1945 – 1946)

Imwiko Lewanika (1946 – 1948)

Shemakone Kalonga Wina -Regent (2nd time) (1948)

Mwanawina III (1948 – 1968)

Hastings Ndangwa Noyoo -Regent (1968)

Godwin Mbikusita Lewanika II (1968 – 1977)

Ilute Yeta IV (1977 – 2000)

Lubosi II Imwiko (2000–Present)

 

KING LEWANIKA THE FIRST (LUBOSI MAWANIKETWA) WAS A SON OF LITIA. LITIA WAS A SON OF LITUNGA MULAMBWA AND HIS MOTHER WAS SANANA. HIS MOTHER WAS INONGE, A DAUGHTER OF AKASHAMBATWA. KING LEWANIKA HAD 44 CHILDREN, FOUR OF WHO SUCCEEDED HIM AS KINGS OF BAROTSELAND.
The following is a list of the children of the four sons who became litunga’s. The list has been developed from oral history as well as written official and private documents. It is still in draft form, subject to review and verification, but it is quite comprehensive – i have never seen any list is. That is more comprehensive, and I invite and welcome assistance from any person of institution with verification information!!
A. LIST OF THE CHILDREN OF LITUNGA YETA THE THIRD (LITIA) – 1916 to 1945
This is a list of the Children of King Yeta the Third (Litia) the 1st born child of King Lewanika the First. The list is MOSTLY but not completely the order of birth:
1. Mulima (Mulena Mukwae Litunga-lya-Mboela) – Female
2. Kufuna (Senior Chief in Balovale up to 1941)
3. Mbololwa – Female
4. Kotutu – Female
5. Kabuku – Female
6. Kaluwe – Male
7. Mwananyanda (Natamoyo) – Male
8. Nakatindi (Senior Chief of Sesheke) – Female
9. Lubosi
10. Ilute (Litunga Yeta the Fourth) – Male
11. Sekufele – Male
12. Makon’wa – Male
13. Kandundu (Mulena Mukwae Mbwanjika) – Female
14. Twembuch
15. Silumelume – Male
16. Mutumwenu – Male
17. Likando – Female
18. Wakunyambo – Female
19. Njekwa – male
20. Inonge – Female

B. LIST OF THE CHILDREN OF LITUNGA IMWIKO THE FIRST (MWANAN’ONO) – 1945 to 1948
This is a list of the Children of King Imwiko the First (Mwann’ono) 13th born child of King Lewanika the First and one of the grandchildren of Litia a son of Litunga Mulambwa –grandfather- and Sanana – grandmother ). The list is in the order of birth:
1. Mutangelwa – Male
2. Akashambatwa – Male
3. Kootutu – Female
4. Mbuyu (Mulena Mukwae Litunga la Mbòela) – Female
5. Lubosi ( Litunga Imwiko the Second) – Male
6. Anang’anga (Senior Chief Lukulu) – Male

C. LIST OF THE CHILDREN OF LITUNGA MWANAWINA THE THIRD (SIR MWANAWINA LEWANIKA) – 1948 to 1968
This is a list of the Children of King Mwanawina the Third (Sir Mwanawina Lewanika) 18th born child of King Lewanika the First and one of the grandchildren of Litia a son of Litunga Mulambwa –grandfather- and Sanana – grandmother ). The list is NOT in the order of birth:
1. Siisii (Senior Chief of Lukulu) – Male
2. Makwibi (Mulena Mukwae Litunga-Lya-Mboela) – Female
3. Nawina – Female
4. Mutumbwaeta – Female
5. Maibiba – Female
6. Mulambwa – Male
7. Lubosi – Male
8. Nakambe –male
9. Aongola – female
10. Matauka – Female
11. Litia – Male
12. Mbololwa – female
13. Sanana – Female
14. Anan’anga – Male
15. Lubosi – male
16. Mbanga – male
17. Lundambuyu – Female
18. Mwanng’ombe – Female
19. Yubya – male
20. Kandundu – Female
21. Ngombala – male
22. Aketata – Male
23. Nolyanga – Female
24. Inyambo – Male
25. Akalemwa – Male
LIST OF THE CHILDREN OF LITUNGA LEWANIKA THE SECOND (MBIKUSITA) – 1968 to 1977
This is a list of the Children of King Lewanika the Second (Mbikusita Akabiwa Sandi the 40th Child of King Lewanika the First and one of the grandchildren of Litia a son of Litunga Mulambwa –grandfather- and Sanana – grandmother ). The list is in the order of birth:
1. Mwanan’ono Kufekisa – passed away in 1970 – Male
2. Sifuniso – passed away in 2010 – Male
3. Litia Malikana (Senior Chief for Kaoma) – passed away in 1993 – Male
4. Nundwalile – passed away as infant at 3 months at Nkana Hospital in 1941
5. Inonge Mutumbaetwa – Female
6. Mbuywana – Female
7. Akashambatwa Wakun’oli – Male
8. Mbikusita Wamundila – passed away in 2011 – Male
9. Mwananyanda Kaluwe – Ndopu (Twin) -Male
10. Kusiyo – Ndopu (Twin) – Male
11. Sekufele Milinga – Male
12. Mbololwa – Female
13. Mwangelwa-wa-Naluya Lubinda – Male
14. Mwendendi Mwaka – Female
15. Sikuka – Female

 

error: Jseekit! Jseekit! Jseekit!

Sign In




Register




Reset Password

Please enter your username or email address, you will receive a link to create a new password via email.